Learning Activities

Learning Activities

 

  • What are the lessons that we can learn from the life of Irena Sendler and her involvement in Zegota? 
  • How can individuals today pay tribute to Irena's memory by getting involved in peace activities that help save some of the world's peoples? 
  • Why is it important for the message of Yad Vashem to be heard beyond the borders of Israel?  How can communities across the world recognize the good works of others?
  • Who are the people in your community who are important to recognize and honor?  How can you and others go about doing that?

 


Irena Sendler never thought of herself as extraordinary or a hero.  Below are three quotes from her.  Consider her position.  Write a tribute to Irena and incorporate some of the statements offered here.

We witnessed terrible scenes. Father agreed, but mother didn't. We sometimes had to leave those unfortunate families without taking their children from them. I'd go back there the next day and often found that everyone had been taken to the Umschlagsplatz railway siding for transport to the death camps.

We who were rescuing children are not some kind of heroes. That term irritates me greatly. The opposite is true – I continue to have qualms of conscience that I did so little. I could have done more. This regret will follow me to my death.

We who were rescuing children are not some kind of heroes. That term irritates me greatly. The opposite is true – I continue to have qualms of conscience that I did so little. I could have done more. This regret will follow me to my death.

 

Comment on the portions of the document, Protest, written by Zofia Kossak a document which influenced and united many Poles in the efforts of helping Jews. Selections from Protest follow:

  • All perish. Poor and rich, old, women, men, youngsters, infants, Catholics dying with the name of Jesus and Mary together with Jews. Their only guilt is that they were born Jewish condemned to extermination by Hitler.
  • The world is looking at these atrocities, the most horrible throughout the whole history of mankind, and is silent.
  • England is silent, so is America, even the international Jewry is silent, usually so sensitive to all harm to their people. Silent are Poles.
  • We are required by God to protest. God who forbids us to kill. We are required by our Christian consciousness. Every human being has the right to be loved by his fellowmen. Blood of the defenseless cries to heaven for revenge. Those who oppose our protest – are not Catholics.

 

Zegota Council

Zofia Kossak-Szczucka was a co-founder of the wartime Polish organization Żegota, set up to assist Poland's Jews in escaping the Holocaust.  In 1943 she was arrested by the Germans and sent to Auschwitz Concentration Camp, but survived the war.  Investigate how Kossak-Szcrucka’s life continued after World War II.


 Hall of the Righteous Gentiles

In 1965, Irena Sendler was one of the first individuals to be honored as a Righteous Gentile by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem.  Research Yad Vashem and find out others who have received this award.

 


On November 16, 1940, building a wall with armed guards; the Nazis closed the Warsaw ghetto.  It was estimated that approximately 400,000 people lived in an area that was split into two areas, the "small ghetto,” generally inhabited by richer Jews and the "large ghetto,” where conditions were difficult. The two ghettos were linked by a single footbridge. Select any of the topics below to expand your understanding of this segment of history:

  • Nazis using the ghetto as a holding place for Jews and Gypsies from other areas
  • Daily life and conditions in the ghetto
  • Armed resistance and uprising by occupants of the ghetto
  • Children's author, pediatrician, and child pedagogist, Janusz Korczak.
  • Resistance fighter, Tosia Altman, escaped the Ghetto in 1943 uprising through the sewers. Died afterwards after she was caught by the Gestapo.
  • The Nazi leader responsible for the liquidation of the Ghetto, Odilo Globocnik
  • Mila 18, book by Leon Uris about the Warsaw Uprising

 

 

       

Zegota is an anarchist hardcore punk and post-hardcore band originally from Greensboro, North Carolina, formed around 1996-1997. The name alludes to Żegota, or The Council to Aid the Jews, which saved the lives of many Europeans during the Holocaust.  Report on the music of Zegota.

 

Fourteen Points

Carton Depiction of Wilson's Fourteen Points

The Fourteen Points

On January 8, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson presented to the U.S. Congress an outline of what he believed would be a structure for a lasting global peace following The First World War. The goals of the outline were summed up in Fourteen Points. While the points formed the basis for Germany’s surrender in 1918, they were seen as controversial by U.S. allies and were resisted during the 1919 peace treaty gathering in Paris. A portion of Wilson’s speech and the Fourteen Points appears below. After reading the excerpt, reflect on the questions that follow.

 


Excerpt from President Woodrow Wilson’s Speech to Congress

It is that the world be made fit and safe to live in; and particularly that it be made safe for every peace-loving nation which, like our own, wishes to live its own life, determine its own institutions, be assured of justice and fair dealing by the other peoples of the world as against force and selfish aggression.  All the peoples of the world are in effect partners in this interest, and for our own part we see very clearly that unless justice be done to others it will not be done to us.  The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this:

I.       Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.

II.       Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants.

III.      The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.

IV.     Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety.

V.      A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty, the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined.

VI.     The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy, and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire.  The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.

VII.    Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations.  No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another.  Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired.

VIII.    All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871, in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all.

IX.     A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.

X.      The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity of autonomous development.

XI.     Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into.

XII.     The Turkish portions of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of an autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees.

XIII.    An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant.

XIV.  A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

In regard to these essential rectifications of wrong and assertions of right we feel ourselves to be intimate partners of all the governments and peoples associated together against the Imperialists.  We cannot be separated in interest or divided in purpose.  We stand together until the end.


 

Activity: Considering the Fourteen Points

Refer back to the excerpt from President Wilson’s speech and the Fourteen Points to answer the questions posed here.

  1. In the first paragraph Wilson talks about the “world being partners.” What is it that the world needs to form a partnership in? Has Wilson’s dream been realized? When does partnership work best in the global community? When does it falter or fail?
  2. What role does Wilson feel that diplomacy must play in a “new world?”
  3. How does Wilson’s vision of trade correspond to what is in place now among nations?
  4. What assurances does Wilson want colonized people to have?
  5. What concessions does Wilson propose for Russia, France, Belgium, Serbia, Romania, and Montenegro?
  6. How does point fourteen support the ideas offered in the first and last paragraph above?

 

Paris Peace Conference and its Results

Prime Minister David Lloyd George of the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau of France, and President Woodrow Wilson of the United States of America.

 

The Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles

On December 4, 1918, President Wilson set sail for Europe to attend the Peace Conference in Paris, France, which would put an end to The First World War and he hoped pave the way for a more benevolent world order. The Conference opened on January 12, with thirty-two leaders present representing approximately 75 per cent of the world’s population. Nonetheless, meetings and negotiations were dominated by the five countries responsible for bringing an end to the war: Britain, France, Italy, Japan and the United States. Significant leaders involved in the negotiations were David Lloyd George from Britain, Georges Clemenceau from France, Vittorio Orland from Italy, and Woodrow Wilson from the United States. Negotiations continued for eight days resulting in five treaties, the most important being the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles related to provisions set for the Germany government. Other treaties laid out terms for other major defeated powers: The Treaty of St. Germain for Austria, The Treaty of Trianon for Hungary, The Treaty of Neuilly for Bulgaria and the Treaty of Serves for Turkey.

The main terms of the Treaty of Versailles were

  1. Germany had to cede Alsace-Lorraine to France.
  2. Germany had to cede the coal mines in the Saar-area to France.
  3. Germany had to cede an area that included Moresnet, Eupen, Malmédy and St. Vith to Belgium.
  4. Germany had to cede the main part of West-Prussia and almost the whole province of Posen to the new state of Poland.
  5. Germany had to cede all colonies: Togo and Cameroon, the territories in East and South-West Africa, islands in the Pacific, and possessions in China.
  6. All German properties in foreign countries were to be confiscated.
  7. Germany had to cede all war material to the allies.
  8. German military draft was abolished as well as the General Staff.
  9. Germany was not allowed to have tanks, airplanes, submarines, large warships, and poison gas.
  10. For 15 years, Germany was not allowed to station troops on the left border of the river Rhine and in a 50 km strip on the right border of the Rhine.
  11. The total size of the Germany army was not to exceed 100,000 men.
  12. The German navy was not to exceed a maximum of 15,000 men.
  13. Germany was allowed a total of 4,000 officers.
  14. Germany was not to take part in the League of Nations.
  15. Austria was to cede South Tirol to Italy.
  16. Turkey was to cede all foreign possessions. England would get Iraq, Palestine, and Trans-Jordan, and France would receive Syria and Lebanon.
  17. Germany was to cede to the allies all seagoing ships with a carrying capacity exceeding 1600 British tonnes, plus half of all ships between 1000 and 1600 Brt.  Furthermore, one fourth of the fishing fleet and two fifths of the inland navigation fleet was to be ceded.
  18. Germany was to cede large amounts of machinery and building materials, trains, and trucks.
  19. Germany had to deliver certain amounts of coal, chemicals, dye, and fuel for established number of years. 
  20. All German sub-ocean telegraph cables were to be confiscated. 
  21. Germany was to pay 20 billion gold marks.

The Germans signed the treaty under protest.



Activity and Further Investigation: The Treaty and Its Results
 


  1. Use the map above and locate other maps from the period to create your own illustrated map that shows the forfeiture of property by Germany, required under the Treaty of Versailles and the restructuring of the map of Europe.
  2. Compare the terms of the Treaty of Versailles to those imposed by Germany on Russia as part of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty.
  3. Hypothesize how the terms of the Treaty of Versailles affected the morale of the German people. Consider how you might react under such circumstances.
  4. As a citizen of Britain, Belgium, or France how would you view the terms imposed on Germany. Provide examples to support your feelings.
  5. Research and prepare a report on the reactions of the world to the Treaty of Versailles.
  6. In your opinion, how would the terms of the Treaty of Versailles affect the economy of Germany?
  7. The conditions of the Treaty were reduced in 1924 and 1929. Research the reasons for the changes. In 1932 the conditions were suspended. Include the reasoning behind this decision and comment on whether decision had any influence on the Second World War.
  8. Research and prepare a report on the origin of the League of Nations. In your report address the passion that Wilson put into getting the American people to join the League and outline the opposition he received from Congress on its passage. Consider in your report the work of the League and how it might have been different if the United States participated in it. Include how the League of Nations was a forerunner to the United Nations.

 

The Ultimatum and the Reply

'A Chain of Friendship' - appeared in the American newspaper the Brooklyn Eagle in July 1914.   The caption read:  
“If Austria attacks Serbia, Russia will fall upon Austria, Germany upon Russia, and France and England upon Germany.”
Activity: The Ultimatum
 
The Austrian-Hungarian government set out an ultimatum, a set of conditions, which the Serbian government needed to respond to in 48 hours. It was the Empire’s way of defeating the rise of nationalism in Serbia and to provide an example for other ethnic groups it governed to heed. Below are two documents: the first is
Austria-Hungary’s declaration to Serbia, followed by the Serbian reply. Read through the documents and consider the questions below. You may wish to stage a debate using the documents and breaking into teams so that each group can defend its position. You may also take the activity one level further by staging a hearing before the International Tribunal at The Hague, a request made by the Serbian government.
 

Questions
  1. As you read the Austrian-Hungarian ultimatum were you convinced that there were some points that the Serbian government would not accept? If so, what were they? Why did you have the response that you did?
  2. What terms were reasonable? How can you defend your position?
  3. What terms interfere with a “free press?”
  4. How is the Austrian Hungarian Empire defining the term propaganda?
  5. What if anything, surprised you about the Serbian response? Did you find the language conciliatory? Confrontational?
  6. Which country or countries acted responsibly in these official documents? Provide examples to support your claim.
  7. In your opinion, was the Serbian request to refer the matter to the International Tribunal, a reasonable request?
  8. In your opinion, was war necessary? Defend your thinking. 

Austrian-Hungarian Conditions to the Serbian Government
 
Preamble
The Royal Serbian Government . . . has[since 1909] tolerated the criminal machinations of various societies and associations directed against the [Austro-Hungarian] monarchy, unrestrained language on the part of the press, glorification of the perpetrators of outrages, participation of officers and officials in subversive agitation, unwholesome propaganda in public education, in short tolerated all the manifestations of a nature to inculcate in the Serbian population hatred of the Monarchy and
contempt for its institutions . . .
 
It is shown by the depositions and confessions of the criminal authors of the outrage of 28 June, that the Sarajevo murders [of the Archduke and his wife] were planned in Belgrade [capital of Serbia], that the arms and explosives with which the murderers were found to be provided had been given them by Serbian officers and officials belonging to the Narodna Odbrana (Black Hand) [a Serbia-based nationalist organization promoting the ideal of a Greater Serbia, i.e., the political union of Bosnia and Serbia] and finally that the passage into Bosnia of the criminals and their arms was organized and effectuated by chiefs of the Serbian frontier service.
 
. . . the results … impose on [the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy] the duty of putting an end to the intrigues which constitute a permanent threat to the tranquility of the Monarchy.
 
In order to give a formal character to this undertaking the Royal Government of Serbia shall cause to be published on the front page of the Official Journal [i.e., the Serbian government gazette] of the 26 July the following declaration:
 
[Serbia] condemns the propaganda directed against Austria-Hungary … and it sincerely deplores the fatal consequences of these criminal proceedings.
[Serbia] considers it its duty formally to warn the officers, officials and all the population of the Kingdom that henceforward it will proceed with the utmost rigor against all persons who may render themselves guilty [of participating in anti-Austrian propaganda] . . ..
 
The Royal Serbian Government further undertakes:  
  1. To suppress any publication which incites the hatred and contempt of the Monarchy….
  2. To dissolve immediately the society styled Narodna Odbrana…and to proceed in the same manner against the other societies … which engage in propaganda against [Austria].
  3. To eliminate without delay from public instruction in Serbia, both as regards the teaching body and the methods of instruction, all that serves or might serve to foment the propaganda against Austria-Hungary.
  4. To remove from the military service and the administration in general all officers guilty of propaganda against [Austria--names to be given over by the Austrian government].
  5. To accept the collaboration in Serbia of organs of [Austrian-Hungarian government] in the suppression of the subversive movement directed against the territorial integrity of the Monarchy.
  6. To take judicial proceedings against the accessories to the plot of 28 June who are on Serbian territory; Organs delegated by [Austria-Hungary] will take part in the investigations relating thereto.
  7. To proceed without delay to the arrest of [two named persons implicated according to the preliminary investigation undertaken by Austria].
  8. To prevent by effective measures the cooperation of [Serbia] in the illicit traffic in arms and explosives across the frontier …
  9. To furnish [Austria] with explanations regarding the unjustifiable utterances of high Serbian officials both in Serbia and abroad, who … have not hesitated since the outrage of 28 June to express themselves … in terms of hostility towards [Austria].
  10. To notify [Austria] without delay of the execution of the measures … [Austria] expects the reply of [Serbia] at the latest by Saturday 25 of this month [July] at 6 p.m.  
Annex--attached to the ultimatum: (conclusions of the court of investigation):
  1. The plot … as formed at Belgrade [Serb capital] by [five persons named].
  2. The 6 bombs and 4 Browning pistols and ammunition … were delivered … at Belgrade.
  3. The bombs are hand grenades from the munitions depot of the Serbian army.
  4. [Instruction on the use of weapons was given on Serbian soil].
  5. To enable [the perpetrators] to cross the frontier [into Austria] … a secret system of transport was organized [by the named Serbian State employee].  
The Serbian Reply to the Austrian-Hungarian Conditions
 
Preamble
… [Serbia] cannot be held responsible for manifestations of a private character, such as articles in the press and the peaceable work of societies . . .[The Serbian government] has been pained and surprised at the statements, according to which members of the Kingdom of Serbia are supposed to have participated in the preparations of the crime … However, Serbia is] prepared to hand over for trial any Serbian subject … of whose complicity in the crime of Sarajevo proofs are forthcoming [as well as officially condemn all propaganda against Austria-Hungary]  
  1. [Serbia will] introduce…a provision into the press law providing for the most severe punishment of incitement to hatred and contempt of the [Austrian-Hungarian] Monarchy …
  2. [The Serbian government] Possesses no proof…that the Narodna Odbrana and other similar societies have committed up to the present any criminal act of this nature … Nevertheless, [Serbia] will … dissolve the Narodna Odbrana and every other society which …
  3. [Serbia will] eliminate without delay from public instruction … everything that serves or might serve to foment the propaganda against [Austria-Hungary], whenever [Austria] furnish them with facts and proofs …
  4. [Serbia] also agree to remove from the military service all such persons as the judicial inquiry may have proved to be guilty of acts directed against the integrity of the territory of [Austria-Hungary], and they expect [Austria] to communicate … the names and acts of these officers for the purpose of the proceedings which are to be taken against them.
  5. [The Serbian govt. does] not clearly grasp the meaning or the scope of the demand … that Serbia shall undertake to accept the collaboration of the representatives of [Austria-Hungary but they declare that they will admit such collaboration as agrees with the principle of international law, with criminal procedure, and with good neighborly relations.
  6. … As regards the participation in this inquiry [which Serbia intends to hold] of Austro-Hungarian agents ... [Serbia] cannot accept such an arrangement, as it would be a violation of the Constitution ...
  7. [states it has not yet been possible to arrest one of the persons named; request proofs of guilt from Austria]
  8. [agrees to reinforce measures against illegal trafficking of arms and explosives across the frontier with Bosnia-Herzegovina]
  9. [offers explanations of anti-Austrian comments by Serb officials if Austria sends examples of their actually having been made]
  10. [Serbia will duly notify the measures taken, but if Austria is not satisfied with the reply] the Serbian government … is ready … to accept a … understanding, either by referring this question to the decision of the International Tribunal of the Hague [i.e., the World Court], or to the Great Powers….

Activities, Research and Further Investigation: The Chronology of the Great War
 
There were few who thought the war that began in 1914 would last long. In fact, many people accepted the war with enthusiasm. It was a common belief that with some clever tactics and strategies, the war would be over by Christmas, and then life would be back to normal and the enemy would have learned a lesson. Some people had a contrary opinion. One in particular was Lord Kitchener who believed the war would be a long haul and it would be more involved than could be imagined.
 
On the following pages is a timeline of the war. The chronology introduces some of the main events, key battles, prominent countries in the war and some of the key personalities. It is far from being a comprehensive list. Below are some possible activities and investigations that can be used in conjunction with the outline.
 
Reader’s Theater
Similar to a play, a reader’s theater has a number of parts and can involve staging and music. Scenery is basic, if any is used. Often the stage is dark and a narrator  introduces the script. A reader’s theater can be written by an individual or several people can work on it simultaneously. There are a number of themes that relate to the Great War that would lend themselves practically to a reader’s theater. For example, research several key events in each of the years. Write descriptive paragraphs on each. Combine the historical events with poetry and other writings found in this module, including using quotes. The narrative script is written to weave the entire production together. Other themes may be a play written from one country’s perspective, through the eye’s of a warrior, expressions of feelings from individuals misplaced by the war, or thoughts expressed by those who remained on the home front. There can be a number of different roles written into the piece. A single voice or two could be used to describe events, and different parts can be given to those who read poetry, excerpts from diaries, or quotes. Often the narrator’s role is the must substantial.
 
Staging Multiple Productions
Several reader’s theaters could be written and staged during a commemorative event that includes poetry and other writings, the culmination of studying about the Great War, or as an event that compares the First World War with current global happenings.
 
Don’t forget to create a playbill announcing your Reader’s Theater event. A program booklet complete with background on the presentation and the actors can also be prepared.
 
Creating a Comprehensive Time Line
The Great War began mid-1914 and the final peace treaty was signed in 1919. The war involved more than 100 countries, with battles were fought on land, at sea, and in the air. The chronology that follows can be used as a starting point to begin to create a huge comprehensive time line. Review the construction of other timelines. Most are produced as accordion style books and can be extremely long. Just think that if you allowed five feet per year your completed product would be thirty feet in length. If you are considering a long time line, consider the type of paper or tag board you will be using and how it will be reinforced. The most difficult part of constructing the time line is to decide the way in which it will be laid out. You might consider creating horizontal lines for personalities, political events and battles or you could divide the lines into activities that occurred on land, at sea, and in the air. Another possibility would be to divide the time line into geographic sectors: the Eastern and Western Fronts, Africa, Middle East, and Asia. Don’t forget to color code your various sections. However you decide to divide the space consider how you can incorporate pictures, maps and other illustrations into your finished product. Use the Bibliography section in this module to help you locate sources for illustrations. Your time line can also include poetry and other writings.

Taking on Different Perspectives

Activities

World War I refugees
 
Life continued on the home front as the military fought on the battlefields. The war was all consuming. Scores of women went to work to take the jobs of men who had gone off to war. Factories that were once making toys were making weapons and “top tunes” became patriotic. Listed below are a number of different activities, that will require some research, but when completed will offer a different perspective on how involving the Great War was, and how it affected so many peoples lives. Each activity can be prepared as a report. Power point presentations could also be made. Illustrations should be incorporated into the reports. 
  1. World War I Slang. Any prolonged major event brings with it a language of its own. The Great War was no exception. Words like “buck private,” “chat,” “Dixie,” and “British warm” all had unique meanings. Research WWI slang. Create a WWI Slang Dictionary.
  2. The Plight of Refugees. Hundreds of thousands of people were displaced because of the war. Most of the movement of people occurred in Europe. There are first hand accounts of refugees and some incredible photographs of their relocation. Research and illustrate a report of refugees. Include maps and photographs in your report. 
  3. Chemical Weapons. The Great War was the first war in which chemical weapons were used. Research the creation of the weapons and the proliferation of their use in the war. There are a number of exceptional photographs showing soldiers using protective gear. As you conduct your research try and locate information on accidents that occurred when chemical weapons were used. 
  4. Animals in the War. A number of four legged friends were used to help in the war. Horses, mules, camels, dogs and even cats were used. Carrier pigeons also played a significant role. Research and illustrate a report on the role that animals played in the war. Maps can also be included as animals were used in geographic locations where they were needed and would excel. You may wish to add a special section on animal heroes of the war.
  5. Auxiliary Organizations. The Red Cross is an organization that we recognize immediately as being significant in playing a major role whenever a disaster occurs. The Red Cross is international and its branches throughout the world were involved in helping with relief efforts during the war. So were a number of other groups: Jewish Welfare Board, the Salvation Army, the Knights of Columbia and even the YMCA along with scores more of smaller organizations. Prepare a report on the role that auxiliary organizations played during the war. Illustrate your report.
  6. Weapons of the War.  Artillery and rifles were the most prominent weapons of the Great War. However, pistols, mortars, grenades, tanks and other weaponry were used. Prepare a report on the use and limitations of World War I weapons. Your report can go into detail on the differences of weapons. Illustrate your report with photographs and drawings.
  7. Posters and Post Cards of the Great War. A number of countries produced propaganda posters and post cards for the war. Locate posters and/or post cards from Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Italy and the United States.   Show what type of propaganda was used for each poster. You can refer back to the activity “Recruiting the Navy” to obtain a list of types of propaganda techniques.