Almaz Tesfay playing the bass guitar
United States of America
John Basilone was born on November 4th, 1916. He grew up in the small town of Raritan, New Jersey. As a child, John was restless and had a sense of adventure from the beginning. After he graduated from 8th grade, John elected not to go to high school. He told people he was looking for adventure. However, after a few years, he had not yet found his adventure. So in 1934, he joined the Army, serving in the Philippines at the U.S. base in the city of Manila. It was during his tenure in the Army where John discovered a mechanical talent for guns, especially machine guns. He also learned to be a leader of men - with the ability to motivate and lead other soldiers. After his 3 year stint in the Army ended in 1937, John returned home to Raritan New Jersey, but after a couple years, he found himself restless and again searching for adventure. He decided to re-enlist in the service, but this time he would join the Marines.
In August of 1942, (10 months into World War II for the U.S.) his group was sent to the island of Guadalcanal. The U.S. and Japanese were battling for the island The U.S. had secured an important airstrip Henderson Field which the Japanese were determined to take. The Marines had only a fraction of the troops compared to the Japanese. Only a single U.S. Battalion stood between the readying Japanese Division and Henderson field. John Basilone was in charge of 16 men. They set up a defensive position with 4 heavy machine guns in front of Henderson Field. On October 24th, the Japanese launched a massive attack. John set the strategy for his unit. He told his men to let the enemy get within 30 yards and then “let them have it.” They fired at the first group of attacking Japanese, successfully wiping them out. This first charge was only the beginning of the overall enemy attack. They charged several more times. Eventually this attack took it’s toll. John, while manning the left two machine guns, heard a loud explosion come from the right setup of the machine guns. Moments later, one soldier from the right side crawled over and informed him that both right guns were knocked out and that the crew was all dead or injured. John knew he had to get to the knocked out guns to see if he could get them working. The first gun was beyond repair, but the second gun had a chance. There was no light to aid in examining the damaged gun. John would have to troubleshoot the problem in the dark, by feeling the parts to find out what was causing the gun not to fire. John quickly had the gun working again. As soon as it was back in action, the enemy charged. With the extra gun now working, Basilone and his unit easily beat back the Japanese attack. The attacks kept coming. John told two of his remaining soldiers to keep the heavy machine guns loaded. John would roll to one machine gun and fire until it was empty, then roll over to the other one that had been loaded while he was firing the first one. At about 3 AM they were almost out of ammunition. The Marines had stored ammunition about 100 yards away. However, this would be a difficult 100 yards. There were enemy troops on both the sides and behind their position. John ran and crawled through the jungle. Bullets flew off over his head and grenades exploded around him. But he continued and made it to the ammo dump. John threw six heavy cartridge belts over his soldier. As he started back to his men, bullets were whizzing all around him again. But he made it back and soon he found another challenge. One machine gun had been smashed. John took parts from another knocked out gun and fixed it quickly. Later in the night, the ammunition ran low again. John would need to go for more, but this time it would be to another ammunition dump, 600 yards away. Once again the Japanese threw everything at him, but he snaked through the grass well enough so that the Japanese could not find a clear target. John made it back with the much needed ammunition which held off the enemy attacks. Finally the attacks ended around sunrise. The daylight revealed a scene of utter carnage on the ground. Hundreds of bodies laid dead in front of the American positions, In fact, the entire Japanese regiment, around 3000 men, had been “annihilated”. On this night of October 24th, and 25th the U.S. had turned the tide of the war and the previously undefeated Japanese were on their way to defeat. For his heroics that night John was awarded The Congressional Medal of Honor.
In July of 1943, John was informed that he was being sent home, but there was a catch to it. John would have to go on a “bond drive”. As John loaded up to go home, he told his buddies he would be back, but they did not believe him. His men figured that with his medal, he could get a safe assignment at home for the rest of the war. His home town of Raritan planned a homecoming parade in his honor. It was held on Sunday, September 19th, 1943. The people of the small town of Raritan were amazed that such a big event came their town. There were 30,000 people, including many politicians, numerous celebrities, and the national press. Life Magazine ran a four page story on the parade. Even the Fox Movietone News video taped the event making a newsreel that was shown at movie theatres throughout the country As a hero, John was worshipped and wined and dined. John said that the admiration and attention was appreciated, but he was a soldier, and that he had given his word to his men that he would be back. John officially asked to go back to his men, but was initially denied. He was told that they needed him more on the home front. He was offered a commission (an officer’s job), but he turned it down, saying he was a plain soldier. He was offered a job as an gunnery instructor. To John, these soft, easy assignments did not seem right. He had a strong sense of purpose, and a safe easy job while there was a war going on was not his idea of being a Marine. After a few months he asked again to go back overseas and this time he was granted his wish. For his assignment, Basilone was to report to Camp Pendleton in California to train with a group that was preparing to invade an island in the Pacific. So on December 27th, 1943, John left the easy life of a hero on the home front to return to the soldiers who would soon go back overseas to engage the enemy.
While at Camp Pendleton John met a woman Marine Sergeant Lena Mae Riggi and love blossomed. After dating for several months, they married on July 10th, 1944. Just one month later, on August 11th, 1944, orders were given for the Marines to ship out of Camp Pendleton. John packed up and said good-bye to his new wife, boarded his ship, and sailed with the rest of the Marines for Iwo Jima
On February 19th, 1945 the Marines arrived at Iwo Jima and were ready to attack., The Navy had bombarded the island for 36 days. Some Marines hoped this intense bombing would allow them to take the island with little resistance. However, there were 22,000 Japanese warriors who were well dug in, heavily armed, and prepared to die. The first U.S. invasion force landed on the beach at 9:05 AM. John Basilone’s group landed around 9:30 AM. They were surprised to find little opposition. The Marines got up on the beach and noticed that their feet could barely move in the soft black volcanic sand of Iwo Jima. For one hour, the U.S. was able to get their transports up to the beach and unload the men without major resistance. Then, with the beach crowded with U.S. soldiers, the Japanese began their counter attack. Suddenly the Japanese from their hidden blockhouses began firing away at the exposed U.S. troops. The Marines were getting annihilated. Survivors later wondered how anyone survived the initial Japanese barrage. The U.S. forces were on the beach, but they had little or no cover, were still disorganized, and had not yet gotten enough heavy equipment ashore to defend against this type of attack. The troops had trained for years, but nothing could prepare them for what was happening all around them. The soldiers would later say how frustrated they were that they could not see the enemy to fight back. The Japanese counterattack had stalled the U.S. invasion. Most Marines were hiding in the sand. The beach was littered with damaged vehicles, equipment, and dead soldiers. The invasion was not moving. Brave men with leadership ability were needed to rally the troops. John Basilone rose to the occasion. Many survivors of the battle recall that in the midst of the battle, with everyone hunkered down in the sand, there was one Marine out in the open, running around, directing men. It was John Basilone. He first guided a tank out of a mine field. Only a few tanks came a shore and they were needed to knock out Japanese blockhouses. John had noticed a particular Japanese bunker had been effectively shooting mortar shells and raging deadly fire upon the U.S. troops. This enemy strong position “had to go”. John found and organized some machine gunners along with demolition men and directed them toward the bunker. John Basilone instructed a demolition man to blow a hole in the concrete structure, while others gave cover against other nearby enemy positions. A large explosion went off opening part of the bunker. Basilone then told the enthused machine gunners to hold their fire and directed a flamethrower operator to charge the pit. The brave flamethrower charged the pit as quickly as he could, stuck his nozzle in the pit and ignited the flame. Some of the Japanese soldiers ran out of the pit screaming as they tried to wipe away the jellied gasoline that was burning them. John Basilone cut them down with a machine gun. Fellow soldier, Charles Tatum, said “for me and others … who saw Basilone’s leadership and courage during our assault, his example was overwhelming.” After knocking out the bunker, Basilone led twenty men off the exposed beach area to a location where they could take some cover and plan their next move. He ordered the men to stay while he went back to get more men and some heavy machine guns. John Basilone gathered some troops and weapons and started back across the beach to the waiting soldiers. But John was hit with a Japanese mortar shell which landed right in the middle of him and the men he was leading. He died from his wounds around thirty minutes later.
For his actions that day, John Basilone was awarded The Navy Cross. The military paid tribute to John by naming a ship after him. An anti-submarine Navy Destroyer, the U.S.S. Basilone was commissioned on July 26th, 1949. His home town of Raritan honors him every year with a parade. The first parade was in 1981. For 22 years, the parade has been held, rain or shine. It attracts thousands of spectators. It is the pride of the town of Raritan. John Basilone remains the only soldier (non-officer) in U.S. history to be awarded both The Congressional Medal of Honor and The Navy Cross. He is also the only Medal of Honor winner to go back into combat and be killed in combat.
Sunday, October 25, 1942
The United States Marine's were determined to keep their small foothold of Henderson Field and the Japanese were equally determined to drive them into the sea. During the protracted battle which lasted for six months, the struggle to "own" Henderson Field came to a bloody climax on Sunday night 25, October, 1942.
At Lunga Ridge -- about 1,000 yards south of Henderson Field it was raining torrents, creating miserable, bottomless mud -- typical Guadalcanal weather. The MARINES manning the main line of defense were exhausted. For two days Japanese human wave assaults had been flung against them. Each time the charging enemy had been driven off -- but the weary MARINES knew their tough adversaries weren't through. The Japanese would gather reinforcements and return.
About midnight, from the gloom of ink-black darkness cam hundreds of screaming Japanese troops. Throwing themselves on the flesh-cutting barbed wire, the first of the waves formed human bridges for their comrades to leap across. One of the Marine section leaders facing them was Sergeant "Manila John" Basilone. An experienced machine gunner, Basilone knew his guns would be tested to their mechanical limits. It would be up to him to keep them firing.
During the attack when grenades, small arms and machine guns were ripping the night and exploding human flesh splattered friend and foe, Sergeant Basilone stayed with his malaria-ridden men. Repeatedly repairing guns and changing barrels in almost total darkness, he ran for ammo or steadied his terrified men who were firing full trigger to keep a sheet of white-hot lead pouring into the ranks of the charging Japanese.
Bodies piled so high in front of his weapons pits they had to be reset so the barrels could fire over the piles of corpses. Not even the famous water-cooled heavy machine guns could stop all the assaults and one section of guns were overrun. Two men killed, three others wounded.
Basilone took one of his guns on his back and raced for the breach in the line. Eight Japanese were surprised and killed. The guns were jammed by mud and water and a few yards away the Japanese were forming for another charge. Frantically stripping mud from the ammo belts men fed them into the guns as Basilone cleared jams and sprayed the fiendish troops rushing at his positions with razor sharp bayonets and hands full of grenades.
Sometime after 0200 the firing died down. No one relaxed. At 0300 the final remnants of the Sendai Regiments with their officers prepared themselves for a final Banzai charge. The full weight of the fanatical Japanese seemed to fall on Basilone's men. But he had set up a cross fire which smashed the charge. Dropping to the mud, still screaming Colonel Sendai's remnants crawled forward trying to reach their tormentors. Depressing the muzzles of his weapons -- Basilone destroyed them. Nash Phillips lost a hand fighting next to his Sergeant. He was surprised to see John Basilone appear next to his bed a little while after dawn. "He was barefooted and his eyes were red as fire. His face was dirty black from gunfire and lack of sleep. His shirt sleeves were rolled up to his shoulders. He had a .45 tucked into the waistband of his trousers. He'd just dropped by to see how I was making out; me and the others in the section. I'll never forget him. He'll never be dead in my mind!"
With dawn the battlefield was strewn with dead and wounded Americans and Japanese -- but Henderson Field still belonged to the Americans and its ownership would never be seriously challenged again. At least 38 dead Japanese were credited to Sergeant Basilone -- many were killed with his Colt .45 at almost arms length. Just 26 years old, Manila John Basilone had entered the ranks of the Marine Corps pantheon of heroes -- and shortly America would take the big, handsome Marine with jug ears and a smile like a neon sign to their hearts. The legend of a "Fighting Sergeant" was born.
When the battle was over and his squad members interviewed, Sergeant Basilone was credited by his men for his will to fight and ability to inspire them in a night of cold fear none ever forgot.
Within a short time the Japanese evacuated Guadalcanal and prepared to meet other Marine invasions of their strongholds elsewhere in the Pacific. American fighting men had proven they could beat the best of the best, the most experienced troops Japan could throw at them. After Guadalcanal the Japanese high command had a fresh respect for the MARINES. They would be forced to meet time and time again as America pressed across the Pacific toward their homeland.
When he received the nation's highest decoration, John Basilone replied modestly, "Only part of this medal belongs to me. Pieces of it belong to the boys who are still on Guadalcanal. It was rough as hell down there." On the 1943 War Bond Tour Sergeant Basilone was to say, "Doing a 'stateside tour is tougher than fighting Japs."
When Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone voluntarily returned to the Pacific war it would be on the sands of Iwo Jima 19, February, 1945. At the head of another machine gun squad, he would drive hundreds of frightened raw troops off the beaches toward their assigned objectives. Iwo would be his toughest fight. Barely on the island two hours, he was killed leading his men.
Gunnery Sergeant Manila John Basilone was the only Marine in WWII to receive both the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross.
Source: Marines World War II: http://www.marineswwii.com/john_basilone.php
DURING his three and a half years as a prisoner of war in World War II, Vivian Eustace's Japanese captors ordered him on six different occasions to dig his own grave. Nevertheless, Viv went on to enjoy a long life in McCrae, Australia after surviving Changi prison camp in Singapore, and slave work on the infamous Thai-Burma railway and Japanese docks around south-east Asia. He was working in a mine in Nagasaki in Japan when the Americans dropped a bomb on the city.
Changi Prison location on Singapore
Viv, 93, died peacefully on Christmas Day, 2010, after spending 68 years on "stolen time" which he put to very good use helping the community. The Richmond, Australia lad, from a family of 10 Depression-era children was 25 when, as a member of the Second Australian Imperial Force's 10th ordinance field workshop, he arrived in Singapore on January 12, 1942 as the Japanese moved almost unopposed down the Malay Peninsula. Viv and his comrades were in Singapore in an armoured vehicle loaded with British currency intended for shipment on rescue ships that never arrived. They gave the silver coins to the Singaporeans to melt down and make jewellery, then used the notes to light a fire to heat up their bully beef, reckoning it would be the last decent meal they would be having for some time.
Viv recalled in his memoir the day the Japanese commander of Changi assembled the prisoners and told them: "You are going to build a railway. Some of you will die." He was right about the second part. Viv saw it happen around him before he was marched off to other Japanese wartime sites in south-east Asia. Towards the end of the war, Viv was in Saigon in southern Vietnam waiting to be shipped to Japan to work in the mines. He was at the back of the queue and one of 10 left on the dock as there was not enough space. En route, Americans sank the ship and all aboard died. Eventually, he was taken to Japan and sent to a coal mine in Nagasaki. When the atomic bomb was dropped on the city, Viv again cheated death.
When he arrived home, his fiancee, Norma Watson, and her mother were on hand to greet him - his future mother-in-law suffered a stroke when she saw the pitiful physical shape Viv was in as he came down the gangplank.
The former tanner went back to school and came out as a qualified health inspector. He and Norma married and in 1959 moved to McCrae, where Viv took on the job of health inspector for the-then Shire of Flinders, retiring in 1982.
The couple had no children and Norma died in 1995.
In 2009 Viv was awarded meritorious membership for more than 55 years of work with the Ex-Prisoners of War and Relatives Association. In 1977 he was awarded the Queen's Jubilee Medal for community service; in 2001 he received the Centenary Medal for his contribution to society.
Source: Peninsula Weekly. Written by Mike Morris, January 12, 2011: http://www.peninsulaweekly.com.au/news/local/news/general/viv-dodged-death-in-war-to-help-in-peace/2044291.aspx
Doris Miller, known as "Dorie" to shipmates and friends, was born in Waco, Texas, on 12 October 1919, to Henrietta and Conery Miller. He had three brothers, one of which served in the Army during World War II. While attending Moore High School in Waco, he was a fullback on the football team. He worked on his father's farm before enlisting in the U.S Navy as Mess Attendant, Third Class, at Dallas, Texas, on 16 September 1939, to travel, and earn money for his family. He later was commended by the Secretary of the Navy, was advanced to Mess Attendant, Second Class and First Class, and subsequently was promoted to Cook, Third Class.
Following training at the Naval Training Station, Norfolk, Virginia, Miller was assigned to the ammunition ship USS Pyro (AE-1) where he served as a Mess Attendant, and on 2 January 1940 was transferred to USS West Virginia (BB-48), where he became the ship's heavyweight boxing champion. In July of that year he had temporary duty aboard USS Nevada (BB-36) at Secondary Battery Gunnery School. He returned to West Virginia and on 3 August, and was serving in that battleship when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Miller had arisen at 6 a.m., and was collecting laundry when the alarm for general quarters sounded. He headed for his battle station, the antiaircraft battery magazine amidship, only to discover that torpedo damage had wrecked it, so he went on deck. Because of his physical prowess, he was assigned to carry wounded fellow Sailors to places of greater safety. Then an officer ordered him to the bridge to aid the mortally wounded Captain of the ship. He subsequently manned a 50 caliber Browning anti-aircraft machine gun until he ran out of ammunition and was ordered to abandon ship.
Miller described firing the machine gun during the battle, a weapon which he had not been trained to operate: "It wasn't hard. I just pulled the trigger and she worked fine. I had watched the others with these guns. I guess I fired her for about fifteen minutes. I think I got one of those Jap planes. They were diving pretty close to us."
During the attack, Japanese aircraft dropped two armored piercing bombs through the deck of the battleship and launched five 18-inch aircraft torpedoes into her port side. Heavily damaged by the ensuing explosions, and suffering from severe flooding below decks, the crew abandoned ship while West Virginia slowly settled to the harbor bottom. Of the 1,541 men on West Virginia during the attack, 130 were killed and 52 wounded. Subsequently refloated, repaired, and modernized, the battleship served in the Pacific theater through to the end of the war in August 1945.
Miller was commended by the Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox on 1 April 1942, and on 27 May 1942 he received the Navy Cross, which Fleet Admiral (then Admiral) Chester W. Nimitz, the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet personally presented to Miller on board aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) for his extraordinary courage in battle. Speaking of Miller, Nimitz remarked:
This marks the first time in this conflict that such high tribute has been made in the Pacific Fleet to a member of his race and I'm sure that the future will see others similarly honored for brave acts.
On 13 December 1941, Miller reported to USS Indianapolis (CA-35), and subsequently returned to the west coast of the United States in November 1942. Assigned to the newly constructed USS Liscome Bay (CVE-56) in the spring of 1943, Miller was on board that escort carrier during Operation Galvanic, the seizure of Makin and Tarawa Atolls in the Gilbert Islands. Liscome Bay's aircraft supported operations ashore between 20-23 November 1943. At 5:10 a.m. on 24 November, while cruising near Butaritari Island, a single torpedo from Japanese submarine I-175 struck the escort carrier near the stern. The aircraft bomb magazine detonated a few moments later, sinking the warship within minutes. Listed as missing following the loss of that escort carrier, Miller was officially presumed dead 25 November 1944, a year and a day after the loss of Liscome Bay. Only 272 Sailors survived the sinking of Liscome Bay, while 646 died.
In addition to the Navy Cross, Miller was entitled to the Purple Heart Medal; the American Defense Service Medal, Fleet Clasp; the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal; and the World War II Victory Medal.
Commissioned on 30 June 1973, USS Miller (FF-1091), a Knox-class frigate, was named in honor of Doris Miller.
On 11 October 1991, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority dedicated a bronze commemorative plaque of Miller at the Miller Family Park located on the U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor.
Source: Naval History and Heritage: http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq57-4.htm