Research and Further Investigation

The War: Research and Further Investigation

The Great War is an overwhelming topic and one to which an individual could devote endless hours of research. There is a huge range of topics from which to choose and the depth of investigation can be as extensive as there is time. Resources are plentiful. This was a war that involved almost the entire world, and touched the lives of everyone. Below are listed a series of categories in which you pursue interests and fulfill assignments. The bibliography in this module can be helpful as you decide on a specific project.

Relevant Topics Which Are Often Overlooked
  1. European Feeling about U.S. Involvement in the War. Several European leaders felt that the U.S. entry into the war was unnecessary.
  2. African American Soldiers. Almost 400,000 African Americans served in World War I but little is spoken of their involvement.
  3. Internment Camps in the Netherlands. As a neutral country the Netherlands interned military who crossed their borders from both sides of the war. How did it manage effectively manage this practice and remain neutral?
  4. Neutrality During the Great War. Only 10 countries, among them Argentina, Chile, Denmark, Switzerland, Norway and the Netherlands managed to stay neutral.  How was it possible for these countries to manage their neutrality and continue their relationships with those in war and each other?
  5. The War in Mesopotamia. Baghdad was a feature player in the First World War because of oil. What was the history of this early relationship to Europe and how did it play out in the following years?
  6. Poison Gas and Stockpiling. Dangerous supplies of poison gas were stockpiled during the war threatening the lives of millions of people. How was the situation at that time similar to or different from that which exists today? 
  7. The Konigsberg Incident. This event represents the East African campaign by the Germans against the British merchant fleet.
  8. The First Air War. The German “Red Baron,” Manfred von Richthofen, and two Americans, James Norman Hall and Edward Rickenbacker are often considered the ace pilots of the Great War. 
  9. Dark Autumn: German Zeppelin Offensive. In 1916, the German Naval Airship Division suffered serious causalities as a result of their attacks on London.
  10. Filming the Great War. Geoffrey Malins was a British photographer. His film, The Battle of the Somme, was released to British cinemas in 1916. The British had two official photographers assigned to the Western Front.
  11. Mexican and U.S. Relationships. Two incidents, Tampico and Zimmerman were influential in the U.S. going to war against Germany. The latter involved a promise from the German government to Mexico to give territory to Mexico if it went to war with the U.S.
  12. The Forgotten Battlefield: Boesinghe. It was not until the late 1990s that a group of amateur archaeologists located the remains of the Battle of Boesinghe in Belgium. This was a new discovery of a forgotten Great War battle.
The Battles
The timeline and other activities in this section of the list battles and provide initial information. The list below categorizes the war into geographic areas to help make your research more specific.
  1. The African Wars
  2. The Eastern Front, including the battle of Tannenberg
  3. Gallipoli Front
  4. Italian Front, including the battles of Isonzo
  5. The Mesopotamian Front and the battles around Kut
  6. The Palestine Front, including the Suez
  7. The war fought at sea, including the largest naval battle of the war, Jutland
  8. The Western Front including the battles of Verdun, Ypres, and the Somme. 
The Monarchy
After the war many of Europe’s monarchy were forced to abdicate. Listed below is a list of royalty for further research and investigation. 
  1. Austria-Hungary: Franz Ferdinand, Emperor Franz Josef I, Emperor Karl I
  2. Belgium: King Albert I,
  3. Bulgaria: Tsar Ferdinand I
  4. England: King George V
  5. Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm II, Crown Price Wilhelm
  6. Greece: King Constantine I
  7. Italy: King Vittorio Emanuele III
  8. Romania: King Carol I, King Ferdinand I
  9. Russia: Tsarina Alexandra, Tsar Nicholas II
  10. Serbia: King Alexander I, King Peter I
  11. Turkey: Sultan Mehmed V, Sultan Mehmed VI
Political Personalities
Since the war involved the majority of countries in the world, the list of political personalities is expansive. Just as with the monarchy above, the list has been categorized into countries. However, it should be noted that the names here are just a fraction of those individuals who were significantly involved in the war effort. 
  1. Austria-Hungary: Viktor Adler (Social Democrat), Julius Adrassy (Foreign Minister), Otto Bauer (Foreign Secretary), Count Leopold von Berchtold (Foreign Minister), Heinrich von Clam-Martinic (Prime Minister)
  2.  Australia: Andrew Fisher, Prime Minister, Billy Hughes (Prime Minister)
  3. Belgium: Baron Charles de Broqueville (Prime Minister), Paul Hymans (Foreign Secretary)
  4. Bulgaria: Alexander Malinov (Prime Minister) Alexander Stamboliski (Anti-Monarchist)
  5. Canada: Sir Robert Borden (Prime Minister)
  6. Croatia: Ante Trumbic (Foreign Minister)
  7. Czechoslovakia: Eduard Benes (Foreign Minister), Tomas Masaryk (President)
  8. England: Herbert Henry Asquith (Prime Minister), Arthur Balfour (Foreign Secretary), Lord Beaverbrook (Minister of Information), Andrew Bonar Law (Conservative Leader) Lord Bryce (Author, Bryce Report), Sir Winston Churchill (First Lord of the Admiralty), Lord Kitchener (Minister of War), David Lloyd George (Prime Minister)
  9. France: Aristide Briand (Prime Minister), Joseph Caillaux (Prime Minister) Paul Cambon (Foreign Minister), Georges Clemenceau (Prime Minister), Raymond Poincare (President)
  10. Germany: Prince Max von Baden (Chancellor), Count von Bernstorff (Ambassador to U.S.),
  11. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg (Chancellor), Otto von Bismarck (Chancellor), Rosa Luxemburg (Revolutionary), Arthur Zimmermann (Foreign Secretary)
  12. Greece: Eleutherios Venizelos (Prime Minister)
  13. Hungary: Miklos Horthy de Nagybanya (Regent), Bela Kun (Prime Minister), Alexander Wekerle (Prime Minister), Count Tisza (Hungarian Prime Minister)
  14. Italy: Paolo Boselli (Prime Minister), Benito Mussolini, Vittorio Orlando (Prime Minister)
  15. New Zealand: William Massey (Prime Minister), Sir Joseph Ward (Prime Minister)
  16. Poland: Ignace Paderewski (Prime Minister), Josef Pilsudski (General)
  17. Romania: Ion Bratianu (Prime Minister)
  18. Russia: Ivan Goremykin (Prime Minister), Mikhail Rodzianko (Duma President), Boris Sturmer (Prime Minister)
  19. Serbia: Nikola Pasic ( Prime Minister)
  20. South Africa: Louis Botha (Prime Minister), Jan Christian Smuts (Prime Minister)
  21. Turkey: Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Military Governor of Syria), Enver Pasha (Minister of War), Ahmed Izzet Pasha (Grand Vizier) Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Post-war President), Said Halim Pasha (Grand Vizier)
  22. United States: Newton Baker (Secretary of War), William Jennings Bryan (Secretary of State), Lindley Garrison (Secretary of War), James W. Gerard (U.S. Ambassador to Germany) ,Warren G. Harding (President), Robert Lansing (Secretary of State), Walter Lippmann (Assistant to Secretary of War), Henry Cabot Lodge (Senate Majority Leader), Woodrow Wilson (President)