Annotated Bibliography

Dulles, Allen W. The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World (The Lyons Press, 1962).

This classic of spy craft is based on Dulles's incomparable experience as a diplomat, international lawyer, and America's premier intelligence officer. Dulles was a high-ranking officer of the CIA's predecessor—the Office of Strategic Services—and served eight years as director of the newly created CIA.

In The Craft of Intelligence, Dulles reveals how intelligence is collected and processed, and how the results contribute to the formation of national policy. He discusses methods of surveillance and the usefulness of defectors from hostile nations. His knowledge of Cold War Soviet espionage techniques is unrivaled, and he explains how the Soviet State Security Service recruited operatives and planted "illegals" in foreign countries.

In an account enlivened with a wealth of personal anecdotes, Dulles also addresses the Bay of Pigs incident, denying that the 1961 invasion was based on a CIA estimate that a popular Cuban uprising would ensue. He spells out not only the techniques of modern espionage but also the philosophy and role of intelligence in a free society threatened by global conspiracies.

Elliston, Jon. InTERRORgation: The CIA's Secret Manual on Coercive Questioning, 2nd ed.
San Francisco: AK Press, 1999.
InTERRORgation, is a verbatim reproduction of the CIA's July 1963 "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation" manual.  Finally declassified, but with some large passages still blacked out, it is nevertheless a classic document on how to make people talk from mind games to harrowing tortures. The manual handily divides tactics into two categories: coercive and non-coercive.  The manual offers an illuminating introduction by Jon Elliston, on the CIA and torture.

Gordon, Nathan J., William L. Fleisher, and C. Donald Weinberg.  Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques. New York: Academic Press, 2001.

Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques presents a practical, straightforward method for interviewing witnesses and victims, interrogating suspects, and accurately identifying them as truthful or untruthful. Instead of relying on intuition or a "gut feeling," interviewers will learn how to utilize four types of questions and apply accurate assessments of nonverbal behavior and verbal clues. They will also learn how to quantify their observations and numerically assess the truthfulness of each suspect, to minimize subjectivity.

Readers will also learn how to use the authors' Integrated Interrogation Technique, a 10-point, highly successful approach to obtaining court upheld confessions. The advantages and disadvantages of recording an interview or interrogation are discussed in detail, as well as some of the current legal aspects of these processes.

 

Shoemaker, Lloyd R. The Escape Factory (St. Martin’s, 1992).
In MI-9: Escape and Evasion 1939-1945 (LJ 11/1/80), M.R.D. Foot and J.M. Langley told how captured British servicemen were helped to resist and escape from POW camps. Shoemaker aptly describes America's counterpart effort, MIS-X, to supply prisoners with the means to escape from German POW camps and return home. Nearly all of MIS-X's materials and files were ordered destroyed at war's end. However, Shoemaker is able to tell much of the story from his own work with the group. MIS-X managed to get food, clothes, tools, radios, paper, and printing equipment to prisoners in Europe. Some flyers had learned a code to use in their letters home if captured and were able to provide useful information to U.S. officials. Well written and likely to be enjoyed by layperson or specialist. (George H. Siehl, Library of Congress)

 

Zulawski, David E. and Douglas E. Wicklander. Practical Aspects of Interview and Interrogation (CRC. 2001).

What makes a person confess to a crime he did not commit? Was he coerced? Is he trying to protect someone else? Interrogation has come under attack as opponents focus on false confessions. However, most cases are still resolved by confession, not forensic evidence. Among the new topics covered in the Second Edition of this bestselling book, Practical Aspects of Interview and Interrogation focuses on why false confessions exist and how to avoid them. Written by two experts who have conducted over 15,000 interviews and interrogations from theft to homicide, this book expands on the valuable topics in the previous edition.